Prostate Cancer – Overall

Device external radiation treatment

Example of an ultrasound affected by prostate cancer (ultrasound can be used to guide a biopsy). Cancer develops from the tissues of the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system when cells will mutate to spread so uncontrollably.

These can spread (metastasize is) in migrating from the prostate to other parts of the body (especially bones and lymph nodes).

Prostate cancer occurs regardless of benign prostatic hypertrophy (or prostate adenoma). It is in the vast majority of cases adenocarcinoma.

Prostate cancer can cause pain, difficulty urinating, erectile dysfunction and other symptoms. Treatment is by surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy and sometimes chemotherapy, or combination of these methods.


The rate of breast cancer varies widely throughout the world. It is less widespread in South Asia and Far East, more common in Europe and even the United States. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is rare among Asians and more prevalent among blacks (high rates may also be influenced by the increased effort detection).

Prostate cancer develops most often in men over fifty years. This is the type of cancer most common in men, where he is responsible for more deaths than any other cancer (except lung cancer). However, many men who develop prostate cancer symptoms do not, do not undergo any therapy and die for other reasons. Many factors of genetic origin, toxicological and diet-related seem involved in the development of this cancer.

We find outbreaks of cancer cells in 30 to 70% of cases in studies performed in autopsies of men 70 to 80 years; prostate cancer remains the most often asymptomatic: the probability of a man 50 years know a diagnosis of prostate cancer is only 10%. In 3% of cases, this cancer will be fatal.

Geography of Prostate Cancer

There are significant differences in the expression of this cancer, which seems more common among the black man, or where the family has a history pathological with this condition. From 1983-2002, while deaths from cancer were generally higher in the Caribbean city, deaths from prostate cancer and stomach were twice as common in the Caribbean in the mainland (while colorectal cancer and lung cancer were three times less frequent). This could be explained by both genetic reasons and food (green tea and / or soybeans or other foods rich in selenium) which appear to protect most Japanese living in Japan (while living in the United States is not).


They are not known with precision.

There is a genetic predisposition and the presence of certain genes seems slightly correlated with the onset of the disease. In particular, a mutation on chromosome 8 might explain the higher incidence of this cancer in black American.

Nutritional causes were discussed with a potentially protective role of lycopene. Similarly, exercise may have a slightly protective effect and tobacco a deleterious effect.

Symptomatology and detection

In most cases, prostate cancer is asymptomatic, ie it is discovered when it does not own event to it. It is most often found:

During blood tests, including investigation of the PSA (specific antigen for prostate, whose predictive value and use, without proven benefit to public health, has recently been called into question). The PSA is a protein normally secreted by prostate cells, but cancer cells secrete 10 times more than a normal cell. This property has raised many hopes in terms of screening. The blood level of PSA can be increased by many other factors (the prostate volume, infections and / or inflammation, the mechanical (digital rectal other)…) or decreased by certain treatments for benign hypertrophy (ministered). The thresholds of significance are therefore difficult to establish. It is recognized, however, rates of PSA between 4 and 10 ng / ml are doubtful, but it is clearly significant beyond. Some authors have proposed to bring the rate to its actual weight of the prostate, or assess the free PSA / total PSA, or the kinetic growth rate over 2 years. Scorer still uncertain for screening, the PSA level is, however, a key indicator for monitoring and treatment of cancers reported.

During a rectal examination, conducted as systematic or because of symptoms related to another illness (especially benign prostatic hypertrophy) incidentally, on parts of resection of the prostate during surgical treatment of prostate adenoma.

When it is symptomatic prostate cancer is most often at an advanced stage. It can lead to: acute retention of urine, hematuria, sexual impotence, impaired general condition pain and / or malfunction or failure of other organs associated with the presence of metastases


The diagnostic orientation based on two key elements: the digital rectal examination and determination of PSA blood. The abnormality of one or both leaves suspect prostate cancer. It will be confirmed or not, by taking a sample of the prostate (biopsy) for examination under a microscope. Only the positivity of these biopsies permits to plan and begin treatment of this cancer. Once confirmed the diagnosis of prostate cancer, we conduct a bone scan in search of bone metastases and abdomino-pelvic CT or MRI abdomino-pelvic to clarify the extension of the tumor in the prostate and houses of possible pelvic lymph node metastases, retroperitoneal or liver.


Clinical examination is the fundamental digital rectal exam.

The most specific induration of the gland. This induration may be nodular, it may also involve an entire lobe or the entire gland palpable. A heterogeneous consistency or asymmetry are much less specific signs, which can also translate a simple adenoma, particularly when the prostate is larger.

Ultrasound trans-rectal biopsies

There is currently no consideration imaging practice that could only detect an outbreak of prostate adenocarcinoma with a sensitivity and specificity satisfactory.

Contrary to popular belief still widespread, and although this review and is still often prescribed endorectal ultrasound alone has no relevance to the positive diagnosis of prostate cancer, under the inconvenience it is likely to cause. It shall, however, when its interest is used to guide prostate biopsies. Other imaging modalities (scan, MRI) have an interest in the balance sheet expansion.


An endorectal ultrasound probe equipped with a guide needle is inserted into the rectum. Biopsies were performed with needles fitted with a notched mandrel. The mandrel penetrates the first. The needle just cover, and decide to imprison and the fragment of prostate located in the notch. The movement of chuck and the needle are automated by a system of springs and the taking is a few hundredths of a second. The screen of the ultrasound, with a landmark representing the path of the needle, permits, thus firing biopsy very precise.

The number of biopsies, and where they should be, are not well codified and many protocols have been proposed: the aim is to obtain a sample as representative as possible. Currently, it is frequently performed 5 to 6 samples per lobe, or 10 to 12 in total. These numbers may be reduced or increased depending on the size of the prostate, tolerance of the patient, or if a second set of biopsies.

Preparation and conduct

This is a frequently performed as an outpatient, ie without hospitalization, or during hospitalization “for days”. A rectal preparation (enemas) is often advocated. Many centers now offer systematic antibiotic (short antibiotic treatment to reduce infectious complications). The concomitant anticoagulation is in principle against inappropriate and that any treatment can be subject to arrest or a temporary modification.


Acceptance of the review is particularly variable from one patient to another. Each biopsy is shooting itself very painful. However, their repetition, and especially the presence and movement of the probe are the main factors of discomfort. The inconvenience of this review may justify the use of local or general anesthesia. Local anesthesia with a gel anesthetic (lidocaine gel) has never demonstrated its effectiveness. Local anesthesia by injection of lidocaine on each side of the prostate (nerves pudendaux) has shown in many studies improved tolerance of the examination, however incomplete, because of its low efficiency discomfort associated with the presence of the probe. Anesthesia “general” Mild equimolar mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide ( “MEOPA”) has recently been evaluated and appears very effective in this indication. It is even more interesting that easy to implement because does not require an anesthetist and seems almost devoid of side effects. General anesthesia “classic” is rarely used, reserved for patients who have suffered greatly during the first of a series of prostate biopsies.


Any pain disappear in a few tens of minutes. Can occur fairly frequent small bleeding through the anus and in urine for 24 to 72 hours without gravity. Small nets blood may also interfere with sperm for several days, again without any consequences.


Cancer begins peripheral portion of the gland, unlike benign prostatic hypertrophy of interest to the central area, périurétrale.

The diagnosis is focused on the examination of the biopsy or surgical specimen.

The seriousness of evolution is correlated with the microscopic appearance (Gleason score), the level of PSA and the spread of the disease.

Bilan extension

The spread of the disease when the disease must be determined in order to better tailor therapy. Therefore the presence of bone metastases, lung and liver, knowing that bone metastases are most frequent. We must look for lymph node metastases in the pelvis and the retrograde (around the abdominal aorta). it must finally try to clarify the extension of the tumor in the prostate, particularly whether the latter exceeds the prostate capsule or not.

The means of imaging used in routine generally low ability to show (ultrasound scan, MRI) or to precisely locate (scan) the original prostate lesions, owing to the low blood of breast cancer. MRI is the least bad review to determine the local extension.

MRI scanners or new generation (volume) are used to search the achievement of lymph nodes, but only nodes whose size is increased are detected. New products in contrast MRI, so-called “super-para-magnetic” could improve the detection of lymph nodes affected.

The positron emission tomography (PET camera, PET-scan) did not indicate however, because of very little or no hypermetabolism prostate cancer.

a blood test can check the status of kidney and liver functions.


The age, overall health of humans as well as the extent of spread, appearance under the microscope and the response of cancer to initial treatment are important to predict the outcome of the disease.

As prostate cancer is a disease of elderly men, many will die for other reasons before the prostate cancer could spread or cause symptoms. This makes the difficult choice of treatment. Decide whether or not we treat localized cancer of the prostate (a tumor confined within the prostate) with intent to heal is that arbitration must be made between the positive and negative expected to point of view of patient survival and quality of life.

The treatment should be discussed on a case by case basis following the extension of cancer, the patient’s general condition and related diseases. A simple monitoring may be recommended in the elderly or among holders of a very localized.

Medical treatment


There is a correlation between the production of testosterone (male hormone) and the multiplication of cancer cells. A blocking or greatly reducing the production of this hormone can effectively curb the disease. Some drugs are administered as a subcutaneous injection every 3 months. Others are administered orally. Side effects are, however numerous, but rarely serious. The hormone, which was the treatment of advanced forms, or metastatic, saw its indications extended to the treatment of tumors rejected for surgery (because of the size of the tumor, the risk of surgery not complete ,…) and why the rate of relapse after radiotherapy remained important. The overall control of the disease, adding radiotherapy and hormone therapy for 3 years, can improve significantly the number of patients for whom the disease remains undetectable. The pulpectomy (testicular tissue ablation) is no longer used since the 90s.


Until the early 2000s, the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer, and whose usual treatment hormonotherapy by becoming ineffective (tried in particular on increasing PSA despite repeated androgen suppression) ‘s has proved a failure. The advent of docetaxel (Taxotere °) amended the therapeutic possibilities, Entr’ouvert by mitoxantrone (Novantrone °) some years earlier. For the first time, a drug used in advanced stages of the disease, managed to improve survival and quality of life of patients. Three controlled studies confirm these results. Others are underway to integrate chemotherapy early in the history of the disease for locally advanced tumors, where organic growth but before the onset of metastases, and why not, immediately after surgery to treat possible micro-metastases.


It is based on the prostatectomy, known as radical or total. It involves the removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles and may be preceded by a levy of lymph drainage of the prostate. The surgery can be done through open (surgical incision in the abdomen or at the perineum) or by abdominal Coelioscopy; surgery is reserved for cancer localized to the prostate and offers great chance of cure if the cancer is actually located and slightly or moderately aggressive (aggressiveness estimated by the Gleason score), and may lead to urinary incontinence, most often temporary and erectile dysfunction. Currently, there is no superiority of one technique over another with regard to cancer outcomes and results urinary and sexual function.


Coelioscopy prostatectomy was used by an American team which published it abandoned in 1997 after 8 cases as the intervention was difficult. It is the French teams that end 1997 and early 1998 took the torch and showed that this technique was feasible. Gaston de Bordeaux, and VALLANCIEN Guillonneau Paris and developed the technical standardization. VALLANCIEN and his team published the technique by transpéritonéale then through peritoneal under which seems simpler. It is now recognized worldwide. With an experience of almost 3,000 transactions, the surgical team Montsouris Institute in Paris has shown the benefits of prostatectomy Coelioscopy: we must retain the shorter hospital stay (5 days against 8 in average according to statistics PMSI 2004, the post operative pain near zero even lower, the rate of transfusion of about 2 to 3% against an average of 15% for open surgery. The strictures of the suture between the bladder and urethra canal are more rare (1.5%). The resumption of activity is fast after about a week.


The prostate cancer tissue may be destroyed by local application of a very cold gas. The cryoprobe (most often cooled with liquid nitrogen) is introduced in endourétral until the prostate, the correct position of cryode can be verified by various techniques including endoscopy conducted by a pubic trocard addition, transvésical. A cycle of freezing and thawing will be implemented for a few minutes and repeated if necessary, a probe is placed urétrovésicale end technology and allow the evacuation progressive tissue nécrosés by applying the cold, some practicing Transurethral resection of tissue mortified by cryotherapy to accelerate the process. Another technique involves placing special needles through perineal ultrasound and under control.

Prostate Cancer – Overview and Risk Factors

Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and second only to lung cancer in cancer related deaths among men in the United States. Sometimes this cancer can be small, slow growing and present limited risk to the patient while at other times it can progress rapidly presenting great health risks. Yet, when prostate cancer is detected in its early states, it can be effectively treated and cured. Therefore, it is advisable for men to have an annual medical check-up in order to examine their prostate’s size, texture, and general functioning.

The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system and is about the size and shape of a walnut; and is located between the bladder and the base of the penis. The urethra – the tube that carries urine from the bladder and semen from the sex glands out through the penis – runs through the centre of the prostate. That is why any disease or condition that increases the size of the prostate or causes inflammation can lead to urinary problems as the enlarged prostate can squeeze the urethra thus affecting the flow of urine.

One major function of the prostate is to lubricate the ejaculation process (by making and adding fluids to semen and other seminal fluids) and to increase the pH making the vagina more hospitable, and therefore more conducive for fertilization. It produces prostatic fluid when the man is aroused and contracts during ejaculation to empty.

Normally body cells grow, divide, and produce more cells as needed to keep the body healthy. However, sometimes the process goes wrong – cells become abnormal and form more cells in an uncontrolled way. These extra cells form a mass of tissue, called a growth or tumour. Tumours can however be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Thus prostate cancer occurs when a malignant tumour form in the tissue of the prostate. In its early state, it needs the male hormone, testosterone to grow and survive.

Also, sometimes, cancer cells break away from the malignant tumour in the prostate and enter the bloodstream or the lymphatic system and travel to other organs in the body. When cancer spreads from its original location in the prostate to another part of the body such as the bone, it is called metastatic prostate cancer, not bone cancer. Often the appearance of the cancer cell provides a clue to indicate if it is programmed to be slow growing and relatively harmless or more aggressive and lethal.

However other medical problems can equally affect the prostate. Among these medical problems is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia BPH (often called benign prostatic hypertrophy) which is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostrate, a condition that becomes increasingly common as men age. This can result in urinary problems, including urinary tract obstruction. The second is Prostatitis, also a noncancerous inflammation of the prostate which can cause burning sensations during urination. Clinically important prostate cancers can be defined as those that threaten the well-being or life span of a man.

Prevalence of Prostate Cancer

It is predominately a disease of elderly men and is one of the most common types of cancer among American men. Cancerous cells are likely to be found in the prostates of 22% of men age 50-59, in 37% of men 60-79, and in more than half (53%) of those living to 80 and older. The disease rarely occurs in men younger than forty years of age.

Globally, it ranks third in cancer incidence and sixth in cancer mortality among men. However, there are marked geographical and ethnic variations in the incidence and mortality of clinical prostate cancer. The risk is highest in North America and northern European countries, and lowest in Japan and other Asian countries and intermediate in regions of Central America and Western Africa. The differences in occurrence may partly be accounted for either by the differences in screening for prostate cancer and the risk of other diseases among world regions or more likely by genetic predisposition as well as diet and other environmental factors.

Risk Factors

Despite the high incidence of prostate cancer, scientist still do not have any fundamental knowledge about the exact cause of this disease and thus have been unable to explain why one man has the disease and the other does not. However, they have been able to identify some risk factors that are associated with the disease. A risk factor is anything that increases the chances of one getting a disease.


Age is the greatest factor influencing the development of prostate cancer. The diagnosis of prostate cancer is rare before age 40 but increases dramatically thereafter. In the United States, it is estimated that one in 55 men between the ages of 40 and 59 will be diagnosed with this disease. This incidence climbs almost to one in six for men between ages 60 and 79.

This association is also reflected in mortality as prostate cancer accounts for about 10 percent of cancer-related deaths in men between the ages of 60 and 79 and nearly 25 percent in those over the age of 80. Clinical disease is rather rare in men under the age of 50 years, and the incidence increases markedly in men aged over 60 years of age.


Heredity seems to be the most important risk factor. Indeed, men with a family history of the disease may have a risk of developing prostate cancer 2 to 11 times greater than men without a family history of it. Approximately 9% of all cases of prostate cancer have a genetic basis. The risk is even higher when two or more relatives are affected or when the affected relative is a father or brother.


While, on a global level, prostate cancer ranks third in cancer incidence and sixth in cancer mortality among men, there is however, a notable variability in incidence and mortality among world regions. The incidence is low (but rapidly increasing in recent years) in Japan and other Asian countries and intermediate in regions of Central America and Western Africa. The incidence is higher in North America and Northern Europe. Even within the United States, this disease is much more common in African-American men than in any other group of men. It is least common in Asian and American Indian men.


There is also considerable evidence that some Western lifestyle factors play a role in the occurrence of prostate cancer. However the specifics as to which lifestyle factors are involved are still not very clear. Nonetheless there are suggestions that excessive intake of calorie, dietary fat, and refined sugar increases the risk of developing prostate cancer. Also reduction in the intake of fruits and vegetables, reduced exercise, and overall higher obesity rates are also considered to increase the risk of having it. Specifically, obesity has been clearly shown to increase risk of death from prostate cancer. Thus, the simplest advice for avoiding death from prostate cancer is to prevent obesity and if you are obese, to lose weight and keep it off.

Also there are some food components that have been suggested to protect men from the risk of prostate cancer and amongst this is soy protein which could also be a factor in the reduction of the prevalence of prostate cancer in Asian countries and is therefore regard as the most protective dietary factor against prostate cancer. Also the intake of green tea by residents of Asia has been adduced to contribute to the low prevalence of prostate cancer in that region.

Equally, the intake of dietary substances such as lycopene and fish oils is believed to help in reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer. Cooked tomatoes are rich sources of lycopene. Lycopene are antioxidants that may protect cells from becoming cancerous. Fish oils (omega-3 fatty acids) are thought to reduce heart disease due to reducing inflammation. Given the presumed importance of inflammation in causing prostate cancer, it stands to reason that fish oils may prevent prostate cancer. Other food components that have been suggested to protect men from the risk of prostate cancer include carotenoids, pumpkin, spinach, watermelon, and citrus.

However, regarding the issue of prevention of prostate cancer, there is still a lingering controversy about true prevention. Consequently, most physicians believe that there is no easy substitute for a healthy lifestyle involving eating a healthy diet, avoiding dietary excesses, eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, getting lots of exercise and being physically active, visiting the doctor on a regular basis, and most importantly achieving and maintaining a normal body weight.

Prostate Examinations and Prostate Cancer

Diseases are presently rampant nowadays. A number of these diseases can be cured but unfortunately, even with our modern technology and magnificent brains for scientists, there are some diseases that are still incurable. Some of these diseases are Ebola, Polio, Lupus, Influenza, AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and some Cancers.

One specific disease that has been getting much attention these days is Prostate Cancer. We surely have heard about it and have a vague understanding of what Prostate Cancer is all about. But what exactly is prostate cancer? Who are prone to this disease? How does it affect us? What are the symptoms and signs? Could it be cured? What tests are available for this kind of disease? What you are about to read aims to attend to these questions.

The Prostate Gland

From the name itself, we could determine that this cancer attacks the prostate gland. The prostate gland is an organ which is located at the base of the urinary bladder and surrounds the first part of the urethra. The urethra serves as the passageway of urine when it drains from the bladder to exit through the penis.

The prostate gland has many functions. One of which is to help control urination. How? It presses directly against the part of the urethra that it surrounds which then helps in urination. Another function of the prostate gland is to produce the substances that are found in semen such as minerals and sugar. As people age, the prostate gland also increases in size, which would then may cause some problems such as difficulty in urinating especially at night.

Prostate Cancer

Now that we know what the prostate gland is, we are now ready to dig deeper into prostate cancer. Let us first define what prostate cancer is. Prostate cancer is defined as a malignant tumor that is made up of cells from the prostate gland. The tumor slowly grows in the gland for many years. During this period, the tumor does not show any visible symptoms or abnormalities. Because of this, a person would not readily know if he has prostate cancer or not. Like any other disease, cases of prostate cancer vary.

It is actually lucky for some to have this disease to spread slowly. Why? This is because there are cases where prostate cancer behaves differently and prefers to spread rapidly instead. When prostate cancer spreads rapidly, it may cause a significant change in the span of life of those people who have acquired the disease. Then, worse news keep on coming to people who have this disease. One of which is that when the cancer advances, it could spread to the surrounding areas and tissues and could even spread to other parts of the body such as the other organs. A situation that we wouldn’t want to happen to us or to anyone we love. Think of a car that encountered an accident and had most of its parts affected. The used to be flashy and speedy car may now be considered a useless, pain in the butt wreck. That’s how the body will be, if the cancer spreads all over the body.

Men and Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is actually common to men. Asian and Native American males have low rates of prostate cancer while African Americans have the highest risk. Though there are men who have low rates or risks, this should not be used as an excuse to the tests and corresponding steps that should be taken in order to prevent prostate cancer. As what we have observed from other diseases, there should always be room for chance and doubt. That is why many experts recommend that when a man reaches the age of forty, he should make give time to an annual appointment with the doctor to be screened for prostate cancer.

The good thing for men is that there are now different tests that could be done to determine if a person has prostate cancer. There are also possible signs and symptoms that could be observed to check if a man has acquired this disease. Here are the signs and symptoms:

A weak or interrupted flow of urine.
Frequent urination.
Difficulty in urinating.
Pain sensations during urinating.
Blood in the urine or in the semen.
Pain in the back and hips that don’t go away.
Painful ejaculation.

Yes, you’ve read it right, even ejaculation could be affected by prostate cancer.

Prostate Exams

Of course, symptoms are practically signs of the storm to come. And in order to be sure if the symptoms you are experiencing really directs to prostate cancer, it is best to visit your doctor and undergo examinations. There are ways to confirm if one has acquired prostate cancer. Here are some tests on how to determine if someone, unfortunately, has a prostate cancer.

1. Digital Rectal Exam
2. Prostate-Specific Antigen Test
3. Ultrasound Examination
4. Biopsy

Digital Rectal Exam
Let us first talk about the Digital Rectal Exam. Why should a man bother to undergo this exam? Well, here’s the catch. If a man determines early that he has prostate cancer, the better his chances of living much longer. If a person undergoes this exam, he could quickly take steps on how to avoid serious prostate problems in the future. Even though this exam may be described as difficult, uncomfortable, unpleasant, intimidating and very awkward for men, this exam could really make a difference in a man’s life. Just like when women undergo exams for the breasts, men have to diligently undergo this exam too.

By undergoing this exam, a man could ensure that he gets to have a long life. Besides, the exam wouldn’t make you less of a man when you do it. Undergoing this exam could also ensure that he stays healthy especially for his family. What more could a man ask for? A simple exam is all that it takes.

How Digital Rectal Exam works?
The patient is informed that the doctor must insert a finger into the patients’ rectum so that he could examine the prostate gland.
The patient is then asked to stand, feet apart and face the examination couch.
He is then asked to bend forward and rest his elbows or arms on the couch.
The doctor would wear surgical glove and cover it with lubricant.
The doctor would assure the patient that he would feel a bit of pressure which is just normal.
The doctor would then insert a finger into the rectum in a downward angle, as if pointing to the belly button.
The doctor would then check the prostate gland for any abnormalities. For example, lumps or hardness in the prostate gland could be a sign of prostate cancer.

DURATION: These procedures may seem very long but in reality, it only takes a minute or so.

Prostate-Specific Antigen Test
The second exam that would be tackled is the Prostate-specific antigen test or more commonly known as the PSA test. This test should be taken alongside the rectal exam. In this test, the level of the PSA in blood is tested. Prostate-specific antigen is an enzyme which is produced by the cells of the prostate gland. Having low prostate-specific antigen levels is just normal for men, however, when a man has high prostate-specific antigen levels that could mean that he may have conditions such as inflammation of the prostate and enlargement of the prostate. Though there is no evidence that these conditions directly cause cancer, it is possible that men develop cancer while not having these two conditions as well. However, this test must be taken so that doctors would have enough information and basis to assume that a patient has prostate cancer. When taken together, the rectal exam and the PSA test can help the doctors in detecting prostate cancer in patients who show no symptoms of the said disease. Another use for this test is to determine if the cancer has recurred. Because this test determines the PSA levels, an increase of the antigen could be a sign that there is a recurrence.

How PSA test works?
The technician or the doctor would use an antiseptic to clean above a vein on your arm.
A blood sample would then be drawn from that area.
The blood sample would be sent to the laboratory for analysis.

DURATION: Obtaining blood takes about three to five minutes.

When the results are released, the doctor would then determine if the patient has normal ranges of PSA. When the result is high but the rectal exam seems normal, the test would have to be taken again to make sure if there is really something wrong.

Ultrasound Test
The third test that should be taken is the Ultrasound Test. What is this test? You may have encountered this term before but just to refresh your memory, here is the definition of ultrasound. The term ultrasound refers to sound that has higher frequency or pitch that humans are able to hear. This frequency is then sent into the body by an instrument which is called the transducer. The sound then bounces off the internal organs and then the returning echoes are converted into images on a monitor. This test has been used for many years now and has no known harmful effects to the human body. Ultrasound is another test that must be taken alongside the first two tests that I have mentioned. Why? This is because an ultrasound would give an image of your prostate gland, therefore providing better image and basis for the doctors.

How does an ultrasound test work?
The patient would be asked to lie on his side with the knees bent.
A disposable cover would be placed over the transducer.
The transducer would be lubricated.
It would then be inserted through the anus and placed into the rectum.
The instrument would be pointed at different angles to have the best view of the prostate gland.
An image would then be seen on the monitor.
The radiologist would then bring the result to the doctor and then the doctor would interpret the result.

DURATION: Ultrasounds are usually completed in less than 20 minutes.

Last but not the least is biopsy. If there are suspicious lesions found, a biopsy may be required. This type of test requires the use of needles and is an invasive procedure. There are two types of biopsy procedures that could be used to diagnose prostate cancer. The first one is the transrectal biopsy and the second one is transperineal biopsy.

How does transrectal biopsy work?
An ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum to show where the tumor is.
A thin needle is inserted through the rectum and into the prostate.
A small amount of tissue would be collected.
A pathologist would then view the tissue under a microscope and look for cancer cells.

How does transperineal biopsy work?
A thin needle would be inserted through the skin between the scrotum and rectum and into the prostate.
A sample of the tissue would be collected.
A pathologist would view the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.

Treatment and Recovery

Panic should not be the first reaction. While there are incurable cases, we must also bear in mind that there are certain types of prostate cancer that can be cured. We must also take into consideration that there are certain factors that may affect the prognosis of the patient, which is why we have to act accordingly.

Here are some factors that might affect the chance of recovery of someone who has been diagnosed with cancer:
The stage of the cancer when it was diagnosed.
The age and health of the patient.
The history of the disease, whether it has just been diagnosed or if it has recurred.

Here are also some treatment options for prostate cancer:
Radiation Therapy
Hormonal Therapy

These are some of the tests that men should undergo so that they could determine if they are cancer free. Though some of these tests are unpleasant to the patient, these tests must be considered as a must in the life of men. By undergoing these tests, a man could be sure that he is healthy and he could make his life longer. Most of all, a man should do this for himself so that he would have the chance to achieve his goals.

Little Did We Know That Prostate Cancer is the Most Common Non-Skin Cancer Amongst Men

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer, has overtaken lung cancer as the leading cancer affecting all men and followed by colorectal cancer.

Statistically, 80 percent of prostate cancers occur in men over the age of 65. Although this cancer can also occur in younger individuals, it is very rare under the age of 50. As males age the prostate can develop problems.

Annually, one out of six American men will develop it in the course of his lifetime. Little did we know the fact a man is 33% more likely to develop prostate cancer than a woman is to get breast cancer.

In 2004, it is estimated that 234,000 new cases of prostate cancer diagnose in the United States. That makes it the most common cancer among American men, next to the skin cancer. More than 27,000 deaths due to prostate cancer are expected to occur annually.

One new case every 2 1/2 minutes. One new case every 150 seconds.

While in UK, nearly 35,000 men are diagnosed and about 10,000 men die from prostate cancer annually. This means over one man die every hour in UK.

Today, about two million men are fighting prostate cancer, and over the next decade, as baby boomer men reach the target ripen age for prostate cancer, about three million more will be compelled to join the battle. It is estimated that by 2012, the number of new cases in the U.S. is expected to increase to more than 300,000 new cases per year by 2012.

One new case every 100 seconds. One man dead every 13 minutes.

What is prostate?

Prostate is a male sex gland, the size of a walnut, located behind pubic bone in front of the rectum that encompasses lower part of a bladder. The tube that carries urine (the urethra) runs through the prostate. At birth the gland size is small like a pea and it continue to grow until age of 20 when a man reaches adulthood. Male hormones (called androgens) is responsible for this growth. The gland size will not change until 45, when it starts to grow again.

Its primary function is to produce thick fluids that nourish the sperm, as well as helping propel sperm through the urethra and out of the penis to reach and fertilize an egg. Even though prostate is not a primary component of urinary tract, but it is very important for urinary health.

In older men, the part of the prostate around the urethra may keep on growing. This causes BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) which cause problems passing urine. BPH is a problem that must be treated, but it is not cancer.

What is prostate cancer?

The body is made up of different types of cells. Normally, cells grow, divide and then die. Sometimes, cells mutate and begin to grow and divide more quickly than normally. Instead of dying, these abnormal cells clump together to form tumors. If these tumors are cancerous or so-called malignant tumors, they can invade and kill healthy tissues in the body. From these tumors, cancer cells can metastasize (spread) and form new tumors in other parts of the body. In contrary, non-cancerous tumors or so-called benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.

Prostate cancer is abnormal cells grow out of control forming small nodules or bumps (overgrowth tissue) on the surface of in the prostate gland. In some cases, the overgrowth tissue is benign and this prostate condition is called Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH). Other times, abnormal cancerous cells characterize the overgrowth of tissue, and this is referred to as a malignancy or prostate cancer.

As its close proximity to the bladder, prostate disorder might interfere with urination and causing bladder or kidney problems. It is also located immediately next to the nerves responsible for erections hence it might interfere with sexual function as well.

Although more than 70% of all prostate cancer cases are diagnosed in men over the age of 65, doctors recommend that every man above the age of 50 should have a PSA test and a rectal exam. According to statistic African-American have almost twice as much prostate cancer incidence rates as Caucasian American, hence they should start getting tested at age 40. The same is true if you have a
family history of prostate cancer.

One-third of men over the age of 50 have some cancer cells within their prostate and nearly all men over the age of 80 have a small area of prostate cancer. In most men, these cancers grow extremely slowly, particularly in elderly men, and it will never cause any problems. Even without treatment, many of them will not die of the prostate cancer, but who, but rather live and die of some other unrelated cause before the disease takes its toll.

However, similar to most types of cancer, if left completely unchecked prostate cancer can be aggressive, grow more quickly and may spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body, particularly lymph nodes or the bones. This makes treatment much more difficult.

What are the symptoms?

Prostate cancer often does not cause any symptoms for years. When symptoms do occur, usually the cancerous cells have spread beyond the prostate, this is why regular check up for men age of 40 and above is necessary and recommended. The symptoms include:

Urinary problems:
Dull pain in the lower pelvic area, hips, or upper thighs
Not being able to urinate
Sensation that your bladder doesn’t empties
Having a hard time starting or stopping the urine flow
Problems with urgency of urination and difficulty in starting
Frequent urination, especially at night
Weak flow of urine
Urine flow that starts and stops
Pain or burning during urination
Difficulty having an erection
Pain at ejaculation
Genital pain
Blood in the urine or semen

Note: Other health issues such as urinary infection or inflammation; bladder problems or kidney stone can cause exactly the same symptoms. Hence, should those symptoms occurred and accompanied with blood in your urine, painfully ejaculation and general pain in your lower back, hips and leg bones, significant lost of weight – you must inevitable visit your urologist for a thorough check up.

Who are at risk?

Risk factors consistently associated with prostate cancer include:

Age: After the age of 50, the chance of developing prostate cancer is higher. More than 80 percent of all prostate cancers occur in men 65 years and older.
Race: African American men have a 60% higher risk of prostate cancer than white men, including Hispanic men
Ethnicity: More common in North America and northwestern Europe and occurs less frequently in Asia, Africa, Central America and South America.
Family history: Appears to have a genetic link. Having family history of prostate cancer, a father or brother with the disease doubles a man’s risk of developing it. Man whose brother had a prostate cancer have 4.5 times higher risk of prostate cancer and 2.5 time higher if his father had a prostate cancer.
Vasectomy: Men who have undergone vasectomy (a surgical procedure that renders them sterile) may have an increased risk.
Men who have diabetes have less risk of getting the disease, although no one really knows why.

How to prevent?

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is the best way to reduce the risks from all forms of cancer:

Diet: The results of most studies show s diet high in animal fats and low in fresh fruit and vegetables have an increased chance of developing prostate cancer.
Studies show a diet high in lycopenes (found in higher levels in colorful fruits and vegetables), selenium, goji berry, broccoli and turmeric may lower the risk of developing prostate cancer.
Exercise: Maintaining a healthy weight along with regular physical activity may reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
Get plenty of rest- regularly scheduled bed time is important for overall health.

How is prostate cancer detected?

There are three common screening methods for prostate cancer:

Digital rectal examination (DRE) A digital rectal examination as part of an annual physical exam in men age of 50 or older (and in younger men who are at increased risk). During this test, a doctor inserts a gloved and lubricated finger into the rectum to feel for abnormalities. While the rectal exam may be a bit unpleasant, it is done quickly.
Blood test for prostate specific antigen (PSA) The PSA is a blood test which measures a protein in prostate gland cells. The American Cancer Society recommends the test to be executed once a year for men 50 and older, and for younger men with higher prostate cancer risk.

Results under 4 are usually considered normal. Results above 10 are considered high. Values between 4 and 10 are considered borderline. The greater the PSA level, the greater the chance that prostate cancer exists.

The test need to be validated further with a biopsy as the PSA test cannot be used as a foolproof test for prostate cancer:

2 out of 3 men with a high PSA values show no cancerous cells in their prostate biopsy.
1 in 5 men with prostate cancer will have a normal PSA result.
Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) TRUS will be done if the digital rectal exam or PSA levels are abnormal. A probe is inserted into the rectum and pictures are recorded using sound waves, which create an image of the prostate gland. The test is usually done in outpatient setting and usually takes less than 30 minutes. Based on results from these screenings, additional tests may be recommended.

A positive biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis. If a biopsy reveals cancer, additional testing is done to see if it has spread to other organs:

Blood tests- may be taken to see if the cancer has spread
Bone scan- to determine if the cancer has spread to the bones
CT scan- a series of x-ray images taken of the pelvis or abdomen, often used to determine general signs of disease
Chest x-ray- to determine if cancer has spread to the lungs
MRI- magnetic resonance imaging to detect cancer in lymph nodes and other internal organs

What is the usual treatment for prostate cancer?

There are several treatments to treat prostate cancer: These include surgery, radiotherapy and various forms of drug treatment. Hormone therapy is commonly used. It blocks the action of testosterone, a sex hormone that prostate cancers need in order to grow.

Three treatment options are generally accepted for men with localized

Radical prostatectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the entire prostate gland and nearby tissues. In some cases the lymph nodes in the pelvic area are also removed. This procedure is performed using nerve-sparing surgery which might prevent damage to the nerves needed for an erection. However, nerve-sparing surgery is not always possible.
Radiation therapy: Using energy to the prostate using an external beam of radiation. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer are candidates for adding hormonal therapy to standard radiation therapy.
Active Surveillance may be an option recommended for patients with early-stage prostate cancer, particularly those who have low-grade tumors with only a small amount of cancer seen in the biopsy.

Prostate Cancer and Enlarged Prostate – Causes, Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment

We know that starting at age 40, the levels of the by-product prolactin of testosterone of men increases, stimulating the production of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase that causes the conversion of testosterone to gihydro-testosterones DHT triggering prostate enlargement and Prostate cancer. Therefore in order to prevent the symptoms of enlarged prostate and prostate cancer are to naturally impend the conversion of testosterone to DHT. Unfortunately, aging is not the only causes of enlarged prostate and prostate cancer. In this article, we will discuss other causes of prostate enlargement and prostate cancer.

I. Causes of enlarged prostate and prostate cancer

1. Genetics
Genetics may also play a role in enlarged prostate since study shows that prostate cancer and enlarged prostates can be inherited from generation to generation.

2. Hormone imbalance
The outward appearance of a typical middle-aged person shows increased abdominal fat and shrinkage of muscle mass, which is the main factor causing hormone imbalance. Hormone imbalance is also caused by depression, stress, and anxiety that are the most common psychological complications of hormone imbalance.

3. Cell-growth factor
For whatever reason, some people have implicated in enlarged prostate that is a growth factor.

4. Mineral deficiency
Our prostate contains high amounts of zinc to function normally. Zinc deficiency causes the prostate to enlarge. This may be due to aging or uncontrolled diet with excessive alcohol drinking.

5. Obesity
Study shows that uncontrolled diet that is high in saturated and trans fats are the main cause of hormone imbalance that results in prostate enlargement. Researchers suggest that excess calorie consumption could somehow directly stimulate prostate enlargement because the excess body fat that accumulates causes an imbalance of hormone levels.

6. Testosterone
Testosterone deficiency may be caused by high amounts of the by-product prolactin of testosterone of men in the body that stimulates even higher productions of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase resulting in a high amount of the conversion of testosterone to gihydro-testosterones DHT thus triggering prostate enlargement. Excess estrogen seems to be the culprit in prostate enlargement that leads to the pathology and favors the development of prostate cancer.

III. Symptoms

1. Nocturia.
Nocturia is defined as being awakened at night one or more times in order to pass urine. It becomes more common as the person becomes older. This common pattern seen among people with this condition is an increased number of times of waking up every night to urinate for the rest of their life.

Nocturnal Polyuria is an important cause of nocturia in which there is an overproduction of urine at night. It is defined to have nighttime urine volume that is greater than 20-30% of the total 24 hour urine volume. Nocturia occurs more commonly among older people. It also occurs in women and men differently. Women generally experience nocturia as a result from childbirth, menopause, and pelvic organ prolapse. Nocturia in men can be directly attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also known as enlarged prostate.

2. Dysuria.
Dysuria is a complication associated with genitourinary infections usually resulting in painful urination because the infection has made its way into the urinary tract, resulting in a urinary tract infection. Dysuria in men is usually indicative of a complication of the prostate, commonly referred to as prostatic hyperplasia caused by hormonal imbalances associated with estrogen production.

3. Asymptomatic
As we know the prostate gland becomes enlarged as a man ages. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis may be diagnosed when infection-fighting cells are present causing common symptoms of prostatitis such as difficulty with urination, fever, and lower back and pelvic pain.

4. Epididymitis
Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis that connects the testicle with the vas deferens. Epididymitis is usually caused by infection of the urethra or the bladder. Epididymitis may begin with a low grade fever and chills with a heavy sensation in the testicle which becomes increasingly sensitive to pressure or traction.

III. Prevention and treatment

A. With Foods

1. Tomato
Tomatoes contain a high amount of lycopene that can help to protect the prostate and keep it healthy, but raw tomato is hard to digest. Be sure to take tomato with dark green leafy vegetables for helping the absorption of lycopene.

2. Soy bean and legume
Soybeans and legumes contains isoflavones and is a unique source of phytochemicals It directly inhibits the growth of different types of cancer cells and protects the prostate from being enlarged. Study shows that isoflavones were found to markedly inhibit prostate tumors in mice implanted with prostate cancer cells. Try adding soy or rice milk to your morning cereal or oatmeal.

2. Grapefruit
Grapefruits contain high amounts of vitamin C, minerals, bioflavonnoids and other plant chemicals that help to prevent enlarged prostate, prostate cancer and other forms of cancer and heart diseases.

3. Papaya
Papayas are rich in antioxidants, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin A, carotenoids and flavonoids that have cardio protective and anti-cancer effects. Eating papayas help to promote lung health and prevents the prostate from becoming enlarged and prevents prostate cancer.

4. Bean
Beans are rich in inositol pentakisphosphate. Beans are high in fiber, which helps the body rid itself of excess testosterone that reduces the conversion of testosterone to gihydro-testosterones DHT thus triggering prostate enlargement and other problems.

5. Green tea
Green tea contains the antioxidant phytochemicals called polyphenols that attack growth factors and proteins, interrupting processes that increase the size of tumors, thus preventing them from spreading to other parts of the body. Green tea also help to prevent the development of benign prostate hyperplasia such as enlarged prostate and prostate cancer.

6. Broccoli
Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, including kale and cauliflower, are rich in sulphoraphane, a cancer-fighting phytochemical that helps rid the body of excess testosterone and reduces the risk of benign protatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

7. Cold water fish
Cold water fish contains high amounts of Omega-3 fatty acids. Study shows that omega-3 fatty acids inhibit carcinogenesis that helps significantly lower levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in men with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

B. With Supplements

1. Bee pollen
Bee pollen is an antioxidant containing high amounts of flavonoids, zinc and many other elements needed by our bodies. It has an astounding record at reversing prostate cancer and other prostate problems such as enlarged prostate.

2. Prostate glandulars
Animal prostates contain high amounts of zinc that nourishes the human prostate.

3. Alanine
Since alanine is present in prostate fluid, it plays an important role in prostate health. This has been confirmed in some studies that Alanine helps in preventing enlarged prostate and helps in strengthening the immune system.

4. Glutamics acid
The fluid produced by the prostate gland also contains high amounts of glutamic acid, and may play a role in the normal function of the prostate. High dosages of glutamic acid may cause headaches and neurological problems and people with kidney or liver disease should not consume high intakes of amino acids without first consulting with your doctor.

5. Glycine
Glycine is also found in fairly large amounts in the prostate fluid and may for this reason be important in prostate health. It is required to build proteins in the body and synthesis of nucleic acids, the construction of RNA as well as DNA, bile acids and other amino acids in the body. Study shows that glycine, taken withalanine and glutamic acid help to reduced the amount of swelling in the prostate tissue.

6. Lycopene
The substance found in tomatoes, fruits and vegetables can prevent and slow down prostate inflammation and prostate cancer. Study shows that lycopene helps to decrease in DNA the damage to prostate cells. Lycopene also protects against LDL cholesterol oxidation.

C. With Herbs

1. Saw palmetto
Saw palmetto is the number one choice when it comes to prostate health. Recent study of American Society for Cell Biology shows that saw palmetto inhibited prostate cancer cell growth in the test tube. It has been used for a long time as an herb to treat an enlarged prostate gland in men. It may also be used to treat prostate cancer. This herbal remedy has no significant side effects and only rarely causes mild stomach upset or diarrhea.

2. American Ginseng
The roots, has been used for centuries in Asian medicine as an aphrodisiac, a tonic for well being and a curative. American Ginseng is helpful in treating prostate problems due to low testosterone and androgen levels. It also inhibits cancer cells proliferation in a variety of cancer such as lung cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer.

3. Corn silk
Corn silk contains certain therapeutic properties that help to relieve the inflammation of the prostate. Corn silk are also popular as an alternative to standard Western allopathic medicine for treating bed-wetting and obesity.

4. Pumpkin seed extract
Pumpkin seeds contain high amounts of zinc and fatty acids which is necessary for the prostate’s health. Pumpkin seed extract helps to tone the bladder muscles, relax the sphincter mechanism and recongest the prostate.

5. Pygeum Africanum
Pygeum Africanum is rich in phytosterols, the substances that inhibit the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, which is the process responsible for prostate inflammation. Phytosterols also help to reduce the size of the prostate, promote normal urination and reduce cholesterol deposits in the prostate that can occur with BPH.

Essiac is useful to regulate prostate gland function, stimulates gland activities, promote circulation of blood, relieves pain and inflammation and may permit increase sexual activities. Study shows that essiac possesses potent antioxidant and DNA-protective activity, properties that are common to natural anti-cancer agents.

7. Uva ursi
Uva ursi is an evergreen perennial shrub. It has been used since the year 150AD by various civilizations to treat urinary tract infections, kidney problems, Prostate, and bladder dysfunction.

8. Soy isoflavones
Study shows that an increased soy intake is related to a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Vitro tests showed that soy isoflavone inhibits growth of both androgen-sensitive and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

D. With Chinese Herbs

1. Saw palmetto
Saw palmetto has been used for over a century in traditional Chinese medicine in treating pain in the lower back, inflammation and enlargement by inhibiting dihydrotestosterone, thereby reducing its stimulation for cancerous cell multiplication.

2. Patrinia (Bai jiang cao)
Patrinia helps the body get rid of prostate inflammation and damp heat that exists in the body. In Chinese medicine damp heat in the prostate could be caused by bacteria infection, drugs and other conditions such as a habit of eating hot, spicy or greasy foods.

3. Lu lu tong (liquid amber)
Lu lu tong has the ability to improve qi and blood circulation . It also helps to reduce the abdominal, back and knee pain caused by damp heat as well as difficult urination because of bladder or prostate inflammation.

4. He shou wu
He shou wu contains several derivatives of tetrahydroxystilbene. These antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds may act as an estrogen, reducing levels of circulating male hormones such as DHT that fuel the growth of prostate cancer.

5. Niu xi (Achyranthes)
Niu xi contains triterpenoid saponins and sitosterol that possesses anti-inflammatory effects in both enlarged prostate and prostate cancer inflammation. It also helps to nourish the kidney liver and reduce symptoms of damp heat and difficult urination as well as stiffness and pain of lower back.

6. Gui Zhi (tokoro)
Gui Zhi is used for urinary tract disorder that pertains to ying qi levels which is the main cause of prostate inflammation. It also is used as a tonic and blood purifier.

7. Astragalus root
Astragalus root is a sprawling perennial legume. The Chinese medicine uses the dried sliced or powdered root of the plant to enhance immune function by increasing the activity of certain white blood cells, which increases the production of antibodies. It also helps to increase the body’s resistance to infections, to heal the allergies, and to raise and renew the vitality.

8. Che Qian zi (plantago seed)
It is mainly used for stone strangury caused by lower burner damp-heat, such as the symptoms of aching pain in the lumbus and abdomen, poor urination or with hematuria, and urinary tract stones.

9. Vaccaria seed
It is used to reduce pain and stiffness in the lower back, drain excessive damp heat, invigorate blood and treat difficult urination.

E. With Vitamins & Minerals

As we mentioned in previous articles, We know that starting at age 40, the levels of by-product prolactin of testosterone of men increases, stimulating the production of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase that causes the conversion of testosterone to gihydro-testosterones DHT triggering prostate enlargement and other problems. Besides aging there are many other causes of enlarged prostate and some of them might result in prostate cancer. Beside foods nutrition and herbs, vitamins and minerals also play an important role in preventing and treating prostate enlarged as well as prostate cancer.

1. Zinc
Zinc is necessary for male sexual and prostate health. Zinc inhibits the uptake of testosterone into prolactin. The prostate gland contains a higher concentration of zinc than any other organ in the body, therefore zinc deficiency is the major cause of enlarged prostate as well as an early indication of prostate cancer.

2. Selenium
Selenium contains an antioxidant enzyme that helps to enhance immune function, stop early cancer cells in their development and control cell damage that may lead to cancer. Foods that contain high levels of selenium are bran, broccoli, eggs, mushroom, and basil nut.

3. Vitamin C
As we know Vitamin C, a water-soluble vitamin, is commonly known as an antioxidant. Some studies show that increased levels of vitamin C reduce the risk for prostate cancer as well as prostate inflammation and enlarged prostate.

4. Vitamin D
Vitamin D is found in foods and is also produced by the body and activated after exposure to ultraviolet light from the sun. Studies show that activated vitamin D may be broken down in the prostate, where it may plays an important role in preventing enlarged prostate and prostate cancer. Vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of prostate cancer.

5. Vitamin E
Vitamin E plays an important role in preventing prostate cancer because it interferes with prostate specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor proteins that play a central role in the development of the disease.

F. With Homeopathic Remedies

Chimpaphilia acts principally on kidneys, and genito-urinary tract; affects also lymphatic and mesenteric glands. It helps in treating urge to urinate with burn pain, strain to urinate and prostate enlargement and irritation.

2.Conium maculatum
Conium maculatum is an excellent remedy for old age people. It helps to improve prostate enlargement, difficult urination, weakened urine flow and soften the prostate and enhance sexuality.

3. Hepar sulphuris calcareum
Hepar sulphuris calcareum is a mixture powder of oyster shells and pure flower of sulfur. You can purchase in mixture in a health food store and follow the instructions to make your own. Hepar sulphuris calcareum has proven record in treating dribbling urine and poor flow.

4. Sabal serrulata
Sabal serrulata is homeopathic to irritability of the genito-urinary organs. It is helpful in treating difficult urination caused by enlarged prostate, constant desire to urinate, as well as sexual inability.

5. Staphysagria
Staphysagria is helpful in treating diseases of the genito-urinary tract such as the urge to urinate, inability to urinate fully and feeling of bladder not being empty.

6. Thuja
The main action of thuja is on the genito-urinary organs. It is helpful in treating enlarged prostate, sudden desire to urinate and split urinary stream.

G. With Common Sense Approaches

1. Reduce fat and cholesterol intake, especially saturated fats.
Study shows that if you eat more than 5 servings of red meat every week you could increase the risk of enlarged prostate and prostate cancer by 80%. By eating less of red meat and replacing them with cold water fish, you are ensured yourselves to get enough omega fatty acid that helps to improve your prostate health, reduce cholesterol levels, lower the risk of enlarged prostate as well as prostate cancer.

2. Eat foods containing more zinc (nuts- especially walnuts, pumpkin, seeds, safflower seeds and oysters). Zinc is an essential mineral for prostate health. It helps to reduce the size of the prostate and relieve symptoms of enlarged prostate. Foods containing zinc also contain cucurbitacines, chemicals that stop testosterone from changing to stronger forms of testosterone which encourages too many prostate cells to grow. Foods that contain cucurbitacines are nuts, walnuts, pumpkin seed, and oyster.

3. Guard your prostate with green tea
Green tea contains catechins, a chemical that helps our immune system to track down tumor cells before they can do any harm to the prostate cells. Green tea may be one reason that Asian people have far fewer cases of prostate cancer than North Americans.

4. Remove all chemicals and pesticides from diet (eat organic food).
Chemicals and pesticides in the processing food is toxic to our body. Intaking high doses of these poisonous chemicals will danger our immune system as well as cause inflammation of the body including the prostate.

5. Increase consumption of plants high in the sulphurophanes
Study shows that you could reduce the risk of prostate cancer and prostate enlargement by 45% if you eat 24 or more servings of vegetables that contain high amounts of sulphurophanes such as broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, and cabbage.

H. Activities That Help to Maintain a Healthy Prostate

1. Moderate exercise (like walking)
We know that one half to three-quarters of men older than 75 will have some cancerous changes in their prostate glands. People doing moderate exercise like walking for 2 to 3 hours per week had a 25 percent less risk of developing prostate problems than those who did not. Just 20-30 minutes walking a day would help to increase circulation of blood to the body as a side benefit for better sexual function and prostate health.

2. Sitz baths
It is one of the earliest prostate treatments and the most effective remedies for prostate pain. This special bath brings a great flow of blood to a specific area of the body while the regular hot bath is pleasant and generally increases circulation throughout your body.

3. Yoga
Yoga is really helpful to the prostate. It also helps tone the deep pelvic muscles there by promoting circulation. Yoga promotes flexibility, circulation, and stimulates the liver meridian. In general yoga helps a person to be more aware of his pelvic area in terms of his muscular control.

4. Kegal exercise
Kegal exercise when performed while in virasana, bhekasana or frog pose also promotes good prostate health and overall benefit to the urogenital tract.

5. Spinal and pelvic massage
Spinal and pelvis massage helps to
a) Increase blood supply to the prostate and the pelvic area.
b) Increase lymphatic flow to the prostate and the pelvic area.
c) Reduces inflammatory conditions.

6. Joyful sex life
Sex helps increase movement of the pelvic muscles and the blood circulation to all organs of your body. As fresh blood supply arrives your cells, organs and muscles are saturated with fresh oxygen and hormones, and as the used blood is removed, you also remove waste products and toxins from your body, thus reducing the risk of inflammation of the prostate.

You can see there are many different methods that help to maintain a healthy prostate. I hope this information will help. if you need more information. please visit my home page at: